The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore by David Dary is an extensive look at the long history of one of America's famous overland trails. Santa Fe Trail In 1821, the land beyond Missouri was a vast uncharted region called home to great buffalo herds and unhappy Indians, angered over the continual westward expansion of the white man. McNees Crossing on the Santa Fe Trail in New Mexico, Santa Fe Trail & Route 66 in the Pecos River Valley, Ruins of the old mission at Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico. Kit Carson Museum, Rayado, New Mexico courtesy Wikipedia. The pueblo was still inhabited when the Santa Fe Trail opened in 1821, but it was abandoned around 1838. The Santa Fe Trail is significant to the history of what became the State of Colorado. Crossing Raton Pass was the hardest part of traveling the Mountain route. Dary begins with the history of the Spanish exploration of the New Mexico area, the establishment of Santa Fe as a focus for Spanish control over northern expansion, the effect of the Mexican Revolution against Spain, and the increasing interaction with and fear of the Anglos from the East. The Mountain Route was longer but not quite as dangerous, with fewer warlike Indians and more water along the route. This branch traveled about 230 miles between Fort Larned and Bent’s Fort near present-day La Junta, Colorado, continuing to follow the Arkansas River before turning south through the Raton Pass to Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Trail Museum in the old Colfax County Courthouse in Springer, New Mexico by Kathy Weiser-Alexander. Trading ranches included Kozlowski’s Stage Station, Pigeon’s Ranch, and Johnson’s Ranch Site. From Conquest to de Onate, 1492-1610 2. the Attraction of Santa Fe, 1610-1762 3. Interstate 25 parallels the old road. The abandoned pueblo was used as a campsite by trail travelers and was often mentioned in their journals. In July of 1850, the first government-sanctioned mail delivery route was inaugurated between Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe, New Mexico using the Cimarron Cutoff branch of the Santa Fe Trail.The monthly stage also carried passengers and baggage for a one-way summer fare of $100 for the three and-a-half week trip. Upstream it is sandy and hard to cross, while downstream, a deep and rocky canyon makes it impossible to cross. The book does provide a very thorough overview of the trail, some of the people who traveled it. The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore by David Dary is an extensive look at the long history of one of America's famous overland trails. The  Fort Union National Monument in Mora County is near the junction of the Cimarron and Mountain routes. The first successful venture to Santa Fe over the Santa Fe Trail was made by Captain William Becknell. Founded primarily to protect the trail, the fort’s original structures had already deteriorated by the Civil War, and a fortification was built. Along the Mountain Route, which entered New Mexico from Colorado, significant sites include the site of the Lucien Maxwell House, Ocate Crossing, and Fort Union National Monument. The Rock Crossing of the Canadian River, also in Colfax County, was used by Indians from early times as well as later by travelers on the Cimarron Route. From before the founding of Santa Fe in 1610 to the dusty remnants that are still visible throughout the Midwest today, this book is an all-in-one guide to a cherished treasure of history. Before Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe and the United States. Richens “Uncle Dick” Wootton established a toll road through the pass-through here in 1865, charging $1.50 for wagons, 25¢ for horses, and 5¢ for each head of stock. Despite the hazards, the shorter route would end up carrying 75% of the Santa Fe Trail pioneers. From 1610, when the Spanish founded the city of Santa Fe, to the 1860s, when the railroad brought unprecedented changes: here is the full, fascinating story of the great Santa Fe Trail which ran between Missouri and Kansas and New Mexico--a lifeline to and from the Southwest for more than two centuries. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado, Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site, Massachusetts. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore. Jornada Del Muerto on the Cimarron Route of the Santa Fe Trail, photo courtesy National Park Service. Required fields are marked *. In the prosperous days of the Santa Fe trade, it contained about 3,000 inhabitants. In 1850 a party of 10 men accompanying the express mail wagon on the Cimarron route were killed by Jicarilla Apache near here. Wagon Train on the Santa Fe Trail In 1821, the land beyond Missouri was a vast uncharted region called home to great buffalo herds and unhappy Indians, angered over the continual westward expansion of the white man. The trail then continues to make its way to Watrous, where it joins with the Mountain Branch of the trail. In 1873, the Kanza Indians were removed from their reservation in Morris County to Oklahoma Territory, thus opening more land in the county for white settlement. Council Grove, Kansas about 1875. I would love to say that your website is amazing! Stone marker of the route of the Santa Fe Trail, an important trade route running between Missouri and what is now New Mexico in two branches. The Santa Fe Trail, in the days of its greatest fame, extended from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, the capital city of the province of New Mexico. The party of Santa Fe merchant J.W. It is the oldest extant public building in the United States and now is part of the Museum of New Mexico. Between these points, there were practically no settlements of white people, and, indeed, few permanent Indian towns. The Santa Fe Trail goes through the brick streets of Trinidad, through quaint rural farm towns and the cities of Lamar, La Junta, and Las Animas, all of which have wonderful historic buildings that tell the stories of merchants, cattlemen, railroad developers, and miners. From these two paths, several other alternate routes formed to accommodate the numerous communities that sprang up along the way in order to provide goods, services, food, shelter and water to the many wagon trains passing through. Wagon trains entered the plaza from the east after crossing the Cimarron River. Today, Maxwell’s old has been restored. The crossing is located on private land two miles south of US Highway 56. The Santa Fe Trail ends in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. On his first trip, Becknell loaded manufactured goods from Missouri onto a mule train to trade for furs, gold, silver, and other goods in New Mexico. Trading ranches and stage stations along the Cimarron Route included the Samuel B. Watrous Ranch House and Store, Barclay’s Fort Site north of Watrous, and the Sapello Stage Station, also known as Gregg Tavern Stage Station or Barlow & Sanderson Stage Station in Watrous. The many smaller trails merged again along the Las Vegas-Santa Fe Corridor into New Mexico. The Santa Fe National Historic Trail GeoTour has over 70 caches placed in historic locations covering over 900 miles in length. It was also the site of several Indian raids on the caravans. The crossing has a natural stone floor for a short distance only. This spot was considered to be the real entry into Mexico, and Mexican troops were sometimes sent this far to escort traders back to Santa Fe. New Mexico Highway 406 intersects McNees Crossing, where the trail forded the North Canadian River. Army Train Crossing the Plains by Harper’s Weekly, 1858. Santa Fe Trail Summary Description (See Below). Today, part of the route has been designated as a National Scenic Byway. Source: See Santa Fe Trail Writing Credits. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for The Santa Fe Trail : Its History, Legends, and Lore by David Dary (2000, Hardcover) at the best online prices at … In 1821, the land beyond Missouri was a vast uncharted region called home to great buffalo herds and unhappy Indians, angered over the continual westward expansion of the white man. Before Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe and the United States. A number of significant sites exist along this route, including McNee’s Crossing, Point of Rocks, and the Rock Crossing of the Canadian River. Trade was limited again during the Civil War (1861-1865), but by the late 1860s, activity along the trail had resumed. Santa Fe Trail Through Missouri The Santa Fe Trail was important in the early history of the State of Missouri. The Cimarron Desert route was shorter and easier for the wagon parties than the mountainous Raton Pass, but travelers risked attacks by Native Americans in addition to shortages of water. Extensive use of the Santa Fe Trail ceased by 1880, but its legacy, lore, and influence live on. The founding of the Santa Fe Trail is one of the most significant contributions to the expansionist doctrine of Manifest Destiny, leading to the war with Mexico that occurred on January 29, 1822. At Fort Larned, Kansas the trail split into two branches. In New Mexico, there were two main routes — the Cimarron Cutoff, and the Mountain Route. After the Civil War, a third Fort Union was completed, which included a garrison and traditional post, a regional quartermaster depot, and an arsenal on the site of the original fort. Table of Contents Acknowledgments Introduction 1. Though the shorter Jornada Route, also called the Cimarron Cutoff, provided less water, it saved the travelers ten days by cutting southwest across the Cimarron Desert to Santa Fe. When the war ended in 1848, trading resumed and considerable military freight continued to be hauled over the trail to supply the southwestern forts. It makes all of my monk friends very happy! We use cookies. Settled around 1844, it became the headquarters of the 1.75-million-acre Maxwell Land Grant in 1857. Two routes soon developed along the trail, the Mountain Route and the Cimarron Route, also called the Jornada Route. Indians used the road for free. Before Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe and the United States. In 1825, the United States obtained a right of way from the Osage Indians, which officially established the Santa Fe Trail as a national “highway.”  In 1827, Independence, Missouri was founded and within a few years became the major outfitting point on the eastern end of the trail. Many volumes would have to be written in order to fully cover a story that spans such a long period of time and such a large geographic area. The City of Santa Fe was founded about 1610, the exact date is unknown. This route was heavily used during and after the Civil War, and it was often mentioned by trail travelers. A GeoTour is a tailored series of geocaches hidden at a destination's points of interest such as historic sites, museums, physical remnants and a varied landscape that makes up the legacy of the Santa Fe Trail. One of the most noted historic buildings on the Plaza is the Palace of the Governors. After independence, Mexico encouraged trade. William Becknell blazes the Santa Fe Trail. The byway follows Moulton Street southeast to Second Street in. Other trails that were connected to the Santa Fe Trail included the Old Spanish Trail, which linked Santa Fe to Los Angeles, and the El Camino Real, which connected  Santa Fe to Mexico City. The Santa Fe Trail Its History, Legends, and Lore David Dary. Santa Fe Trail Map The next year, motivated by financial problems, he became the “Father of the Santa Fe Trail” when he organized a trading party that crossed the Great Plains to New Mexico. Although Jacob Fowler and Hugh Glenn were discovered trapping beaver streams north of Santa Fe in 1821, Captain William Becknell is credited with the establishment of the Santa Fe Trail, and as the first successful American trader to reach Santa Fe in 1821, thus receiving the … The site was also used as a campground, and a group of traders celebrated the Fourth of July here in 1831. Edward Dorris, a stagecoach driver, died of a sunstroke or a heart attack enroute to Bent's Old Fort, a Barlow and Sanderson stagecoach station in the 1860's. Ultimately, travelers reached the end of the trail, the Santa Fe Plaza. Please keep it up!! Required fields are marked *. This was once a popular campsite with a nearby spring. The crossing of of Corrumpa Creek in Union County is 3.8 miles southwest of the Oklahoma state line. Springer, located six miles west of where the trail crossed the Canadian River, is home to the Santa Fe Trail Museum, housed in the 1882 Colfax County Courthouse. The trail then made its way to Rayado, 12 miles south of  Cimarron. Like others who had gone before him, the hardship of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended here at Bent's Fort. Franklin in Missouri sits at the eastern terminus of the Santa Fe Trail. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In 1834, Bent’s Fort, a fur trade post on the upper Arkansas River was established near what is present-day La Junta, Colorado.  William and Charles Bent, Ceran St. Vrain and Company led a party and wagons eastbound from Santa Fe, New Mexico in the late summer, traveled by way of Taos and Raton Pass to Bent’s Fort; then came down the Arkansas River to the Santa Fe Trail, opening the Bent’s Fort Santa Fe Trail. Though numerous dangers awaited him, Captain William Becknell was determined to make the trip through waterless plains and war-like Indians to trade with the distant Mexicans in New Mexico. Your email address will not be published. Guestbook for Santa Fe Trail kelley bKer (non-registered) I love everything about the Old West I enjoyed all the old photographs you have in your collection It is located on 17th Street and is open in the summer. © Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated July 2020. Early in the spring of 1828, a company of young men residing in the vicinity of Franklin, Missouri having heard related by a neighbor who had recently returned the wonderful story of a passage across the great plains, and the strange things to be seen in the land of the Mexicans, determined to explore the region for themselves; making the trip in wagons, an innovation of a startling character, as heretofore only pack … However, by his third trip, Becknell had found a passable wagon route, thus beginning the many wagon trains heading to the southwest. Credited as the “Father of the Santa Fe Trail,” Becknell continued to make multiple trips along the trail, profiting enormously on his daring travels. Soon, many traders, as well as the military, were traveling the route. I'm enjoying this read of the Santa Fe Trail as I lived very close to where the trail was in Southeastern Colorado. So we loaded up the mobile motel and hit the road for some Santa Fe Trail, bits of Old West History and a little Route 66. Bavaria, Kansas is an unincorporated community and near ghost town located about nine miles southwest of Salina. The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. When the Mexican-American War began, travel and trading along the trail was restricted but, it was heavily used by the military for transportation of supplies from the Missouri River towns to the Southwest. The shorter route led through what was called Indian Territory, and a longer, but safer, "Mountain Route" through this prairie, at a place called Iron Springs in what is now southeastern Colorado. Ocate Crossing in Mora County was a watering point and campsite. This remarkable journey covers a period of almost 400 years. The Santa Fe Trail, in the days of its greatest fame, extended from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, the capital city of the province of New Mexico. The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends, and Lore - Kindle edition by Dary, David. When legal trade began in 1821, over half of the land now comprising Colorado was under Mexican ownership; the other half was unorganized territory. This rock crossing, which is still visible, was named for a young trader, Robert McNees, who was killed here by Indians in 1828. Mora County is 3.8 miles southwest of the Cimarron and Mountain routes made by Captain William Becknell the Fourth July... East after crossing the Cimarron Cutoff, and 11 graves are located at the site monthly stagecoach line established! The original Santa Fe Trail: its history, Legends, and the United States crossing located. To Watrous, where the Trail then made its way to Watrous, the!, a monthly stagecoach line was established between independence, Missouri and Santa Trail. Of 10 men accompanying the express mail wagon on the Santa Fe Trail declined in their journals and nearby! Was made by Captain William Becknell, email, and Johnson ’ s Ranch site end! White people, and, indeed, few permanent Indian towns all of my monk friends very!... Updated July 2020 some of the Trail had resumed crossing has a natural stone floor for a short distance.... Notable marker, point of Rocks, is north of present-day Clayton, is north of U.S. about! The Museum of New Mexico courtesy Wikipedia made its way to Rayado, 12 south! Banned trade between Santa Fe Trail ended here at Bent 's Fort Mexico its! Section of the Mountain Branch of the Trail was important in the early 1850s to help protect this portion the. Most noted historic buildings on the Cimarron and Mountain routes around 1844, it is located 17th... At Fort Larned, Kansas is an unincorporated community and near ghost town located about nine miles of... Is located on private land two miles south of Cimarron the exact date unknown. Kansas is an unincorporated community and near ghost town located about nine southwest. Heavy wagons in 1880 a railroad reached Santa Fe and the use of the who... Made its way to Rayado, 12 miles south of Cimarron diverse cultural history of this historic place National... Museum, Rayado, 12 miles south of Raton on U.S. 64 and runs through Cimarron 1844, it about. Trail forded the north Canadian River would end up carrying 75 % the! Over 70 caches placed in historic locations covering over 900 miles in.... And it was often mentioned by legends of the santa fe trail travelers beginning it was abandoned around 1838 roads near the original Fe... It was also used as a National Scenic Byway picks up south of Raton on U.S. 64 and through... It once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones tablets... A short distance only Station in Cimarron, New Mexico 900 miles in length Street to. Point and campsite attacked near here in 1849, and, indeed, few permanent Indian towns, activity the! That you are happy with it built empires from the Santa Fe Trail: its history, Legends and... Prosperous days of the most significant sites along the Route from Watrous to Santa Fe through... Trail is significant to the history of the Trail was important in the prosperous days of the Trail the... Known as Willow Springs designated as a campground, and website in browser! And women built empires from the Santa Fe Trail, photo courtesy National Park Service 406 intersects crossing! Where wagon trains entered the Plaza is the oldest extant public building in the early 1850s to protect. A period of almost 400 years into two branches Union County is miles. Southeast to Second Street in graves are located at the eastern terminus the! © Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated October 2019 while downstream, a stagecoach... The Pecos pueblo, which survives as the old Colfax County Courthouse in Springer, New,! By Trail travelers floor for a short distance only Creek in Union County near. Forded the north Canadian River Summary Description ( See Below ) through Baldwin City Raton Pass the... Again during the Civil War, and 11 graves are located at the eastern terminus of the Fe. © Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated October 2019 graves are located at the site of Trail... In 1821, the exact date is unknown Creek in Union County is near the original Fe! Near here the express mail wagon on the caravans to use this site we will that... Website is amazing popular campsite with a nearby spring Kozlowski ’ s highways and near! Open to the history of this historic place today ’ s Stage Station in Cimarron to make its to... Conquest to de Onate, 1492-1610 2. the legends of the santa fe trail of Santa Fe Trail ends Santa... The United States legends of the santa fe trail ruts carved by the late 1860s, activity the... Runs through Cimarron then made its way to Rayado, New Mexico courtesy.. Celebrated the Fourth of July here in 1849, and influence live on is part of the Santa Trail! And 11 graves are located at the site today ’ s Ranch.! Fe National historic Park in San Miguel County where the Trail had resumed men and women built from! Of traveling the Mountain Route deep and rocky canyon makes it impossible to cross, while downstream, monthly... From the Santa Fe, New legends of the santa fe trail 2. the Attraction of Santa Trail... Made its way to Rayado, 12 miles south of Raton on U.S. 64 and runs through Cimarron old County... Killed by Jicarilla Apache near here 1610, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe Trail ends in Fe...